Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was a English physicist and mathematician, who discovered the law of gravity, created calculus, discovered that white light is composed of many colours, and developed the three standard laws of motion still in use today.
During 1665-1666, he discovered the binomial theorem, differential and integral calculus, and also began to investigate the phenomenon of gravitation. In 1685, he expounded his universal law of gravitation. His greatest work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, was published in three volumes 1686-1687, with the aid of Edmund Halley. Newton laid the foundation of physics as a modern discipline.
Newton's universal law of gravitation was "Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with
a force whose direction is that of the line joining the two, and whose magnitude is directly as (proportional to) the product of the masses, and inversely as (proportional to) the square of their distance from each other". His Opticks in 1704 proved that white light could be separated by refraction, into various colours.
Born at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, he was educated at Grantham grammar school and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow in 1667. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672, and soon afterwards published his New Theory about Light and Colours. De Motu corporum in gyrumlOn the motion of bodies in orbit was written in 1684. Newton resisted James II's attacks on the liberties of the universities, and sat in the parliaments of 1689 and 1701/1702 as a Whig.
Appointed Warden of the Royal Mint in 1695, and Master in 1699, he carried through a reform of the coinage. He was elected president of the Royal Society in 1703, and was knighted in 1705. Most of the last 30 years of his life were taken up by studies and experiments in alchemy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Why is Isaac Newton famous?
Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer and is considered to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived.
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