Richard I the Lionheart (1157-1199) was the third son of Henry II, against whom he twice rebelled.
In the third Crusade 1191-1192 he won victories at Cyprus, Acre, and Arsuf (against Saladin), but failed to recover Jerusalem. White returning overland he was captured by the Duke of Austria, who handed him over to the emperor Henry VI, and he was held prisoner until a large ransom was raised.
His later years were spent in warfare in France, and he was killed while besieging Chalus.
Why is Richard I famous?
Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death.