Neville Arthur Chamberlain (1869-1940) was a British Conservative politician, son of Joseph Chamberlain.
He was prime minister 1937-1940; his policy of appeasement towards the fascist dictators Mussolini and Hitler (with whom he concluded the Munich Agreement in 1938) failed to prevent the outbreak of World War II.
He resigned in 1940 following the defeat of the British forces in Norway.
Younger son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Austen Chamberlain, he was born in Birmingham, of which he was lord mayor in 1915. He was minister of health in 1923 and 1924-1929 and worked at slum clearance.
In 1931 he was chancellor of the Exchequer in the national government, and in 1937 succeeded Baldwin as prime minister. Trying to close the old Anglo-Ir
ish feud, he agreed to return to Eire those ports that had been occupied by the navy. He also attempted to appease the demands of the European dictators, particularly Mussolini.
In 1938 he went to Munich and negotiated with Hitler the settlement of the Czechoslovak question, by which the Czeck Sudeten districts were ceded to Germany. He was ecstatically received on his return, and claimed that the Munich Agreement brought 'peace in our time'. Within a year, however, Britain was at war with Germany.
Why is Neville Chamberlain famous?
Neville Chamberlain was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940.