Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) was a member of the revolutionary society, the Carbonari, and founded in exile the nationalist movement Giovane Italia (Young Italy) in 1832.
Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the 1848 revolution, he headed a republican government established in Rome, but was forced into exile again on its overthrow in 1849. He acted as a focus for the movement for Italian unity, the Risorgimento.
Mazzini, born in Genoa, studied law. For his subversive activity with the Carbonari he was imprisoned in 1830, then went to France, founding in Marseille the Young Italy movement, followed by an international revolutionary organization, Young Europe, in 1834.
For many years he lived in exile in France, Switzerland, and the UK, but returned to Italy (despite having been condemned to death in his absence by the Sardinian government) for the revolution of 1848.
He conducted the defence of Rome against French forces and when it failed he refused to join in the capitulation and returned to London, where he continued to agitate.
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Giuseppe Mazzini was a Italian nationalist, activist and journalist.
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