Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), was King of Macedonia and conqueror of the large Persian empire.
As commander of the vast Macedonian army he conquered Greece in 336. He defeated the Persian king Darius in Asia Minor in 333, then moved on to Egypt, where he founded Alexandria.
He defeated the Persians again in Assyria in 331, then advanced further east to reach the Indus. He conquered the Punjab before dwindling troops forced his retreat.
The son of King Philip of Macedonia and Queen Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. At the age of 20, when his father was murdered, the Macedonian throne and army passed into his hands.
He secured his northern frontier, suppressed an attempted rising in Greece by his capture of Thebes, and in 3
34 crossed the Dardanelles for the campaign against the vast Persian empire.
In 333 he routed the Darius at Issus, and then set out for Egypt, where he was greeted as Pharaoh, son of the god Ra, and hailed as son of Zeus. Meanwhile, Darius assembled half a million men for a final battle, but at Arbela on the Tigris in 331 Alexander, with 47,000 men, drove the Persians into retreat.
In Afghanistan he founded colonies at Herat and Kandahar, and in 328 reached the plains of Sogdiana, where he married Roxana, daughter of King Oxyartes.
India now lay before him, and he pressed on to the Indus. Near the river Hydaspes (now Jhelum) he fought one of his fiercest battles against the rajah Poms. At the river Hyphasis (now Beas) his men refused to go farther, and reluctantly he turned back down the Indus and along the coast. They reached Susa in 324, where Alexander made Darius's daughter his second wife.
He died in Babylon of a malarial fever.
Why is Alexander the Great famous?
Alexander III of Macedon also known as Alexander the Greatwas a king of Macedon, a state in northern Greece.