Alexandru Ioan Cuza was born on March 20, 1820 in Galati, Romania. He was the founder of modern Romania the Union's hospodar and the first hospodar of Romania.
Biography and Career :
On 5 January 1859, in Iasi, he was elected hospodar of Moldova. On 24 January, in Bucharest he was elected hospodar of Muntenia. This young career military officer will prove to be an extraordinary ruler, politician, visionary and a remarkable executant of the Romanian centuries old dreams.
He immediately started creating cultural institutions and teaching institutions.
In 1860 he built in Iasi the Conservatory and The University. He made an Organic Law Project in which he declares the compulsoriness of elementary school (in villages and in towns).
He anticipated a real big increase o
f the number of schools in villages. In the same year he founded in Paris a diplomatic agency of the Romanian Unite Principalities and he signed a telegraphic convention with Russia.
In December 24th 1861, although the two Principalities where under Ottoman suzerainty, Cuza declared the existence of Romania state with the capital in Bucharest.
In 1862 he signed telegraphic agreements with Austria.
He consequently governed the country under the provisions of Statutul dezvoltator al Conventiei de la Paris ("Statute expanding the Paris Convention"), an organic law adopted on July 15, 1864. With his new plenary powers, Cuza then promulgated the Agrarian Law of 1863. Also in 1863 he formed one government led by Mihail Kogalniceanu. Among it's reforms:
- the secularization (the confiscation) of the monastic assets (with this law he gave a powerful strike to feudalism);
- the new universal manhood suffrage law;
- the nationalization of the post-office and of the telegraph.
In 1864 he decrees the Rural Law with which he liberated the serfs. With the Land Reform (1864) he liberated peasants from the last corvees, freeing their movements and redistributing some land. With this he gave capitalism a big impulse. He created the University and the School of Beautiful Arts in Bucharest, last one leaded by Theodor Aman. He also founds the Veterinary Medicine School.
He was forced to abdicate in February 11th 1866.
He passed away in May 15th 1873 in Heidelberg, Germany. He was initially buried at Biserica Domneasca, near Ruginoasa Palace, but after the Second World War his remains were moved to the Trei Ierarhi Church in Iasi where he wanted to be buried.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza Lists