Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) described in 1936 a "universal computing machine" that could theoretically be programmed to solve any problem capable of solution by a specially designed machine.
This concept, now called the Turing Machine, foreshadowed the digital computer. He is also believed to have been the first to suggest the possibility of machine learning and artificial intelligence.
During World War II Turing worked on the Ultra project in the team that cracked the German Enigma code. Turing studied at King's College, Cambridge, and became a fellow there in 1935. He studied at Princeton 1936-1938.
Why is Alan Turing famous?
Alan Turing was a British mathematician and logician.
Alan Turing Videos
The Death of Alan Turing
Song for Alan Turing
glbtHistoryMonth.com - Alan Turing
The Incomputable Alan Turing (mostly german)
Opera about mathematician Alan Turing
Lecture 12.3: The Amazing Alan Turing - Richard Buckland (extension lecture) UNSW 2008